it’s another beautiful day in Sydney I’m out enjoying the Sun and looking to find out if anyone knows Why the Sun shines? So the sun gives us a lot of … ?
– Heat? Sunshine? Provides energy (yes) heat energy Where is the sun get that energy from? I have no idea Some kind of chemical reaction… Mmmmmmmm… yeah gas explosions Does it burn gas? – It burns gases?
– It’s burning air
– Fire The fire that’s on the sun But is the Sun really a giant ball of
fire I mean wouldn’t go out after five
billion years? This is one of the things that you just assume you know, but you don’t actually know So in this bucket I have the components
of the Sun Well, I have protons and neutrons There’s some electrons but I didn’t
bring them Most of the Sun is actually protons
– OK So what the protons does in the Sun
– It’s dance together yeah Okay okay
Like this When they come close, you know what they do? They just …
Actually they bounce off each other I’m coming in…
– UOOOOOOH Why the protons bounce off each other?
– Something about the electrons …. Positive and negative eletrons? Cause they don’t like each other
– They don’t like each other That’s because a proton needs a neutron, right? You know why they… they repel like that? -Magnetic force? The repelling magnetic type thing? Magnetic field, uh? -Electric field. Positives and negatives. Positive and Negative It’s to do with the positive negative, right? We got protons, protons are? *Positive* -They’re positively charged -Yeah so the positives repel each other, ok? This is why its so important that the sun’s hot Cause if the sun is hot enough it gets these things moving so fast, that sometimes they can’t avoid a collision -ok -And when they get too close they actually go *Pshh* *Pshh* *Pshh* *Pshh* -Smash the protons
-Positive? -Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah
No, no, no, sma… ahhh and now they’re stuck together and you saw what happened when they smashed together What happened?
-They Leaked *Pshh*
is that energy? -Yeah
-Sick Well the water poured out, but I guess energy would have poured out then. -The energy came out
-The energy came out! what was the energy before it was energy? -Kinetic energy?
-Stored energy. So what’s happening there? -It’s releasing some mass… like lighting?
-Yeah, yeah, and that mass is, uh? -It’s converted as energy, yeah It was the mass of the proton
-(Ahhh!) When the protons smashed together they got lighter! -Yeah, yeah, yeah And they lost that mass and the mass was converted energy -Yeah, yeah
-You know the famous equation about that? -(E=mc^2)
-Yeah! E=mc^2? ?????
(French) have your the famous
equation -which? process proton makes energy? Well.. Ha ha ha ha E=mc^2 squared? Yes? So what’s E? The Sun, I don’t know, ha ha ha -E, E is energy, um m is *mass* C is..
-Cassidy Kelvin? I don’t remembers what C means… So c is… The speed of light -Speed of light? no, right? really
-Yeah -Oh, I thought it was something different
-Isn’t that weird? The speed of light. (Right, Ahh) (Wow, no wonder we jumped science) it seems most people have a tough time
remembering that C is for the speed of light maybe that’s because C is a bit of
a strange letter to represent a speed in fact in Einstein’s original paper he used the letter V for velocity of light but nowadays
everyone uses the letter C for constant it’s a constant of the
universe the speed of light though some people claim the letter C
stands for celeritas the Latin word for swiftness What is
that equation telling us about energy and mass? Energy equals constant mass? The mass and the energy… combine together, create the energy Ha ha ha ha it’s basically saying like this mass that comes out
-yeah gets converted to a lot of energy And the speed of light is a huge number -Yeah
-If you think about that, a tiny bit of mass is a huge amount of energy so every second the Sun is actually
losing 4.3 billion kilograms every second
-every second? -That amount of mass is being converted into -energy In the Sun hydrogen fuses together to form helium but, that’s a little confusing because how out of only protons do we create a
helium nucleus which has two protons and two neutrons well the thing is when the first two smash together one up the protons
actually emits a positron and a neutrino and quickly becomes a neutron next thing
that happens is another proton smashes in
*Pshh* and again we get more energy released now if two particles like this collide *Pshh*
they emit two protons and what we’re left with is a helium 4 nucleus there you have hydrogen fused into helium and a lot of mass lost, a lot of energy hehehe if you wanna know more about fusion in
the Sun check out this video by minute physics it explains how the protons can fuse
even though they’re not really going fast enough to overcome their repulsion (…for fusion will fuse together anyway) (and the Sun is so big it has so much
hydrogen that these small chances happen all the time)