A break or crack in the bone is called a fracture. A broken bone that does puncture the skin is called a closed fracture. But sometimes the bone can puncture the skin, this is called an open fracture. Even if you can’t see any blood, the break will have caused some internal bleeding and the injured person may develop shock bones that are still growing, like children’s bones are supple and can split, crack or bend quite easily. A bit like a twig, but the injury is still very painful. If you think someone has a fracture, you may see: swelling and bruising. The may have difficulty moving and have movement in an unnatural direction. Their limb may look shorter, twisted or bent. There may be a grating noise or feeling if the limb is moved. Have loss of strength or see signs of shock. If you think you’ve broken a bone, support the injured part to stop it from moving this should help ease the pain and prevent any further damage.
Place padding around the injury for extra support. If it’s an open fracture, cover the wound with a sterile dressing and secure it with a bandage. Apply pressure around the wound, not over the protruding bone to control any bleeding. Call 999 or 112 for emergency help. While you’re waiting for help to arrive, don’t move the casualty unless they’re in immediate danger. Support the injured area, for example, fractures on the arm can be secured against the body with a sling. A fracture to the leg can be secured to the uninjured leg with a triangular bandage. Keep checking the person for signs of shock, but do not raise an injured leg. If necessary, raise the uninjured leg. If they become unresponsive at any point, prepare to treat an unresponsive casualty. So remember, pad and support the injured area, use a sling or a triangular bandage to keep it secure. Cover any wounds, call 999 or 112 and that’s how you treat someone with a fracture
First Aid: Chemical Poisoning
- Determine the cause of poisoning – Find out what type of toxic product has been ingested. Try to determine how much was ingested and when.
- Comfortable Position – If the casualty is having trouble breathing, sit them down or help them into a position that aids breathing.
- Alert the emergency services – Call the emergency services, give them the information you have and follow their instructions.
- Nothing to drink – Do not give the casualty anything to drink.
- Do not make the casualty vomit Do not make them vomit, because the toxic product will burn the lining of the mouth and oesophagus a second time on the way up.
- Act according to the casualty’s condition – Give first aid according to the casualty’s condition: If they lose consciousness but are still breathing, place them in the recovery position and monitor them until medical help arrives. If they stop breathing, start cardiopulmonary resuscitation, alternating 30 chest compressions with 2 rescue breaths. If you don’t know how to give mouth-to-mouth breathing, do chest compressions only at a rate of two per second. Poisoning by a chemical product.