2020 Tribal Energy Webinar Series: Energy Efficiency Basics

James Jensen:             Welcome
to everyone. I’m James Jensen, today’s webinar chair. I’m a contractor supporting the Office
of Indian Energy Policy and Programs’ Tribal Energy Webinar Series. Today’s webinar titled
Energy Efficiency Basics is the first webinar of the 2020 DOE Tribal Energy Webinar Series.
Let’s go over some event details. Today’s webinar is being recorded and will be made
available on DOE’s Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs’ website in about one
week. Copies of today’s Power Point presentation will be posted to the web shortly after this
webinar. Everyone will receive a post-webinar email with a link to the page where the slides
and recording will be located. Because we are recording this webinar, all phones have
been muted. We will answer your written questions at the
end of the first two presentations and then we’ll have a third and fourth presentation.
Then answer questions again at the end of the fourth presentation. You can submit a
question at any time by clicking on the question button located in the webinar control box
on the screen and typing your question. Let’s get started with opening remarks from Lizanna
Pierce. Ms. Pierce is senior engineer and deployment supervisor in the Office of Indian
Energy Policy and Programs, duty stationed in Golden, Colorado. Lizanna is responsible
for managing technical assistance and education and outreach activities on behalf of the Office,
implementing national funding opportunities and administering the result in Tribal Energy
project grants and agreements. She has 25 years of experience in project development
and management and has been assisting tribes in developing their energy resources for nearly
20 years. She holds a Bachelor of Science degree in mechanical engineering from Colorado
State University and pursued a master’s in business administration through the University
of Northern Colorado. Lizanna, the virtual floor is now yours. Lizanna Pierce:          Thank you,
James, and hello everyone. I join James in welcoming you to the first webinar of the
2020 series. This webinar series is sponsored by the Office of Indian Energy Policy and
Programs, otherwise referred to as the Office of Indian Energy for short. The Office of
Indian Energy directs, fosters, coordinates, and implements energy planning, education,
management, and programs that assist tribes with energy development, capacity building,
energy infrastructure, energy costs, and the electrification of Indian lands and homes.
To provide this assistance, our deployment program works within the Department of Energy
and the cross-government agencies and with Indian tribes and organizations to help Indian
tribes and Alaska Native villages overcome the barriers to energy development. Our deployment
program is composed of a three-pronged approach, insisting on financial assistance, technical
assistance, and education and capacity building. This Tribal Energy Webinar Series is just
one example of our education and capacity building efforts. This
webinar series is also part of the Office of Indian Energy’s efforts to support fiscally
responsible energy business and economic development decision making and information sharing amongst
tribes. It is intended to provide attendees with information on the tools and resources
to develop and implement tribal energy plans, programs, and projects, to highlight tribal
energy case studies into identified business strategies tribes can use to expand their
energy options and develop sustainable local economies. Today’s
webinar is titled Energy Efficiency Basics, and we’re starting the 2020 webinar series
with energy efficiency since it is generally considered to be the first and best place
to start to reduce energy consumption and, more importantly, reduce energy costs. This
is also true if you later choose to add generation, such a solar system, to a building as the
size of that system will usually need to be much smaller if energy efficiency measures
are incorporated into the building first. This webinar will be focused primarily on
energy efficiency in buildings, however it is important to remember that energy efficiency
is also important anywhere energy is consumed such as for industrial loads. For example,
our last case study today – pardon me – discusses energy efficiency improvements in a vacuum
sanitation system in rural Alaska, a good example in reducing consumption in other than
buildings. As the title implies, today’s webinar will cover
the basics of energy efficiency. Next month’s webinar will build off of this and focus more
on the how-to to execute energy efficiency projects. This how-to focus will be the theme
of this year’s entire webinar series. We do hope that the webinar and the series as a
whole is useful to you. We also welcome your feedback. So, please, let us know if there
are ways we can make the series better. Before I turn it back over to James, I did want to
personally thank the presenters for giving of their time, not only preparing for but
also in presenting on today’s webinar. Thank you. With that, the virtual floor is yours,
James. James Jensen:             Thanks, Lizanna. Before we get to today’s presentations,
I will introduce all of today’s presenters. For our first presentation, we will hear from
Jimmy Salasovich. Jimmy has 20 years of engineering experience with a total of 16 years at the
National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. He specializes in energy efficiency
and renewable energy analysis. He has been the technical leader for over 100 energy assessments
in over 25 states and 17 countries. He has been working in tribal energy for over five
years and he feels fortunate to have gotten the opportunity to work directly with over
20 tribes. Following Jimmy, we will hear from Carrie Nelson. Carrie
manages the State and Tribal Low-Income Energy Efficiency Program for Bonneville Power Administration.
She grew up in Idaho and attended the University of Oregon for her undergraduate degree, then
completed a master’s degree at the New School University in New York. She now resides in
Portland, Oregon and is honored to collaborate with tribes and state agencies of Oregon,
Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada to improve the health and safety of low-income
households while reducing the impacts of energy demands on our environment. Following
Carrie, we will hear from Bryan Mignone. Bryan – excuse me. Bryan is associate general
counsel in the Oneida Indian Nation’s Legal Department. Bryan joined the nation in 2006
as an attorney and was promoted in 2014 to senior attorney and then general counsel,
associate general counsel, with responsibility for the Nation’s Grant Administration Department
and Operations. Bryan has served as the DOE’s point of contact for the Nation’s awarded
grants and overseas compliance with the terms of the grant for the project. Prior
to working for the Oneida Nation, Bryan worked as an M&A corporate attorney in the New York
City office of the international firm Weil Gotshal Manges, LLP. I might not have pronounced
all that correct, but I’m sure it got the point across. He graduated cum laude from
York University School of Law and received his Bachelor of Science degree in Natural
Resources from Cornell University. Following Bryan, our final presenter will be Dan Smith.
Dan is a project manager with the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, where he works in
the energy program. He has a long history of working on energy efficiency and alternative
energy projects in rural Alaska and he sees needs for energy considerations include boosting
the sustainability and the resilience of sanitation services in remote and rugged conditions of
Alaska. In many cases, communities will pay over $0.50 per kilowatt hour for electricity
and over $6.00 per gallon of heating fuel, diesel fuel. Thanks
to each of our presenters for making the time to join us today. With that, let’s get started
with our first presentation. Jimmy, please proceed once your slides are up. Jimmy Salasovich:      Yeah. Okay. Thanks,
James. So, as Lizanna mentioned, I’ll be talking today about energy efficiency in buildings.
So, the agenda for my presentation – first, I’ll talk about some background on building
energy efficiency. Second part of the presentation will be things to consider, just general considerations
when you’re looking at energy efficiency in buildings. The third section is actually identifying
typical energy efficiency measures within buildings. So, that will be a lot of the more
technical things in section three. Then, the fourth section will be just a summary of what
I talk about. So, next slide. So, why is energy efficiency in buildings important?
So, there are a lot of different reasons why you should pursue energy efficiency in buildings.
So, the potential benefits include to save a lot of money on utility bills. That’s usually
the most biggest factor that plays in. It makes economical sense. Then it typically
gets done. It can also reduce maintenance costs. So, an example of that is if you replace
a chiller and the chiller has less scheduled maintenance required for punching the tubes
within the chiller, things like that. It could reduce your maintenance costs over the time
of the life of the equipment. So, that’s another potential cost savings with implementing energy
efficiency measures. The third bullet there is you can – implementing
energy efficiency measures can increase comfort within buildings. So, an example of this would
be if you’re in a home and you install weather stripping and the house becomes a lot less
drafty. You’re saving energy but you’re also more comfortable within the house. So, it
has the dual benefit of saving energy money and making the house more comfortable. So,
within that, as you make buildings more comfortable, it can increase productivity within humans.
So, in a workplace setting, if you make the workplace more comfortable to work in, typically
research has shown that the occupants within that building will be more productive. So,
just another benefit. The fourth major bullet there is it can lower
the impacts on the environment. Then increase energy resilience in buildings for – in
critical buildings. So, the last bullet there might not be intuitive. So, I gave an example.
The picture kind of relates to that. So, a critical building can be any building that
needs to operate if the grid electricity is down, whether that’s caused by a storm or
some other event. Doesn’t matter, you just want that building to operate. So,
after a storm, a lot of – some of the tribes I’ve worked with have identified buildings
that can be used as community shelters, places like gyms. So, if you make those buildings
more efficient, the less fuel you’ll need for the generator or if you have PV and battery
storage associated with the generator, you could make the sizes of those generation technologies
smaller and it can extend the length, the operating time of that critical building.
So, just another benefit of energy efficiency. So, then the common types of buildings within
tribes – and by no means am I saying there are only three types. It’s just these are
like – the common types tribal buildings include homes, government buildings, and commercial
buildings. So, within these buildings, you’d have to identify a person that could find
the energy efficiency measures to implement. It varies depending on the type of building.
In a home, it’s usually up the homeowner to determine if they need new windows that are
less leaky or more insulation in the attic. In the government buildings, it’s also a different
person that would determine what energy efficiency measures need to implemented. Same thing for
commercial buildings. The thing with commercial buildings that make them a little bit different
is a lot of times it’s a building, a bigger building. You’ll have maintenance staff there
who specialize in energy. So, they’re typically better equipped. They do it for a living to
identify where energy can potentially be saved in those bigger buildings. Same for some of
the government buildings. A lot of times you will have, depending on size of the tribe,
you might have a facilities person that maintains the building. So,
the nice thing – the last bullet there – the process for identifying energy efficiency
measures is pretty similar for each building type. So, that’s a nice advantage. So, next
slide. So, the first step with energy efficiency in buildings
is doing energy management. So, compiling and tracking your utility bills. So, typically,
we want to see what are the patterns of how a building is using electricity and, a lot
of times, for buildings in hot climates, you’ll see the electricity peak in the summertime
when the air conditioning is high. In colder climates, a lot of times there is no air conditioning
load. So, the electricity might be relatively flat throughout the year. But then you’ll
a high natural gas or fuel oil load in the winter and swing season months when there’s
heating needed. So, it’s important to compile those utility bills
and see, basically, where are you spending your money on energy. It’s good to track this
energy use throughout time, energy use and cost throughout time to see, “Does it vary
year to year? Are there anomalies where one month is much higher than the other? Can you
figure out why?” Then once you have that historical energy use data, you can kind of benchmark
your building compared to other similar building types in a similar climate to see how your
building stacks up. Is your building using more or less than a typical building of that
same type and size and in the same climate field? You
can also track greenhouse gas emissions, if that’s important to the tribe. With all this
information, you can set goals for the tribe to reduce energy use or maybe implement financially
viable energy efficiency measures. I should note, anytime you see EEM, I forgot to mention
that that stands for energy efficiency measures. So, those are the measures you’d be implementing
in the building. So, another goal might be just to increase energy efficiency throughout
the tribe. So, just some of the agency goals. Then the next couple of bullets. So, the conduct
building energy assessments and audits. So, once you have this historic data, the utility
data that shows how your buildings are using electricity, energy, the next step would be
to conduct building audits or building energy assessments. I have a slide dedicated to that.
Then once you have the assessment information, the final bullet would be to implement the
energy efficiency projects that are financially viable. So, next slide. Okay,
so, within the energy management, just some more information on tracking and prioritizing
the buildings based on the energy use. So, again, analyze the tasks and current energy
consumption of the building by gathering the electricity bill, natural gas, propane, fuel
oil, whatever the energy might be. So, collect that data. Typically, it’s on a monthly basis
that you’d be tracking it. Then, identify any usage patterns within the building. As
I mentioned yesterday, is a particular building much higher than a comparable building type?
Are certain buildings highest in the summer or conversely in the winter? Things like that.
Then with that information, as I mentioned in the previous slide, you could start to
prioritize what buildings to do energy assessments on. Then, ultimately, where to implement energy
efficiency measure or implement energy projects. So, typically, again, we like to see at least
three years of monthly utility data. It’s not a necessity. But it’s nice to have that
to sort data. Some other things to consider is to group buildings
by building types. So, if you have a lot of different – a lot of office buildings that
are of similar construction, similar use, you might group those together to see, “All
right, which one’s the highest? Maybe we’ll focus on that one.” Then some other things
to consider is the building age. So, typically, the older the building, the more opportunities
for energy efficiency exists. Just they weren’t built up to the current code. So, you might
have more opportunities in older buildings. You could focus on buildings that are used more
often. So, buildings that are only used once a week and are empty the rest of the time
might not be a high priority because they don’t use a lot of energy anyway. Most of
the time, they’re empty and not being used. Other things to consider is like, “Is the
building fully conditioned?” A lot of times we’ll go into warehouses and spaces like that
where they’re not conditioned. The lights are most of the time off. So, there’s not
a lot of opportunity to reduce energy use in those buildings. So, all things to consider
when you’re looking at energy efficiency. So, next slide. So,
with energy efficiency, the next step after you track the bills would be to actually conduct
an energy audit or energy assessment. So, this is a process where you identify the opportunity
to reduce the energy use in a building and look for ways that you could save costs through
energy savings. So, it provides the building owner kind of a way to make decisions on what
energy efficiency measures or EEMs to implement within a building. So, you could prioritize
those EEMs for the building owner. So, the typical steps within an energy audit or
energy assessment, there are typically three. So, the pre-audit, the audit itself, and then
the post-audit activity. So, within the pre-audit, you’re doing that energy management. You’re
doing those energy management tasks, things like collecting the utility data, look at
the building trends, and things like that. So, that’s all done before you even go in
the building, typically. Then the next step would be to actually conduct the audit. So,
during the audit, you want to collect as much information about the building as you can;
what kind of heating system it has, cooling system, lighting system, when it’s used, and
all those kinds of things. I’d start to identify where there might be possibilities to implement
energy efficiency measures. Then, once you’re done with the audit, typically go back to
your office and do the post-audit activities which includes doing the actual calculations
to figure out whether or not it makes sense to implement an energy efficiency measure. A
lot of times, this could be done by having a local installer kind of look at the building.
If you need a furnace replacement, have them give you your options on, “All right, if I
install a standard furnace, it’s going to cost this much, but it’s going to eat this
much energy.” If you install the best highest efficiency furnace, it’ll cost a little more
but it’ll save over the time of the life. So, you’ll want to prioritize those measures
that you identify in the audit in the report. Then, ultimate, report the results back to
the building owner. So, next slide. So, the next part of the agenda is some general
things to consider. So, when you’re implementing energy efficiency measures, there are a lot
of competing interests within tribes. The other thing to consider is, a lot of times,
people aren’t experts in energy efficiency. So, what can you do to start identifying these
measures, even though you don’t do it for a living? So,
another thing to consider, it does take money to implement a lot of energy efficiency measures.
Within that, a lot of times, building owners will focus on the capital costs of implementing
energy efficiency measures. So, how much does it cost upfront? Do I have the money? Do I
need to finance it? Things like that. A lot of times, people don’t look at, “When will
it pay off? How much money will I make over the next 20 years by doing this energy efficiency
measure? Even though it costs more, it’ll save me over the life of the project.” So,
it’s starting to try to think in terms of net present value is an important thing to
do. So, other things to consider. The climate definitely
affects what works well within buildings. So, there’s no single best design for buildings.
What works well in Alaska might not work well in Kansas. So, just very different climate.
Luckily, there are some energy efficiency measures that pretty much make sense throughout
any buildings. So, things like LEDs. LED lighting pretty much work well in any climate. EnergyStar
equipment works well in any climate. So, those are things you could do just pretty much across
any building. Some other things to consider. There are rebates
and grants available. A lot of times, they are complicated and you might have to wait
for money. You might have to actually install the measure and then show that it’s installed.
Then you get the money a few months later. So, those are all things to consider. Then,
the bullet. Low electric rates or low utility rates can make it more difficult to justify
implementing energy efficiency measures because you’re not saving that on the energy cost
as much as if you had higher rates. So, conversely, the higher the utility rates, typically, makes
it easier to justify doing energy efficiency measures within buildings. So,
some other things to consider. So, an important one; is the building a small home or is it
a larger commercial building? What’s the type of building? So, the types of energy efficiency
measures do depend on the size of the building. Again, some measures don’t really as much.
So, LEDs work well in pretty much any building type. But the size does matter in other measures. Other
things include is the building new construction or an existing building? I’ll have a separate
slide on this. But it’s much easier to implement energy efficiency measures in new construction
than in existing buildings. Once a building’s built, things like adding insulation to the
walls, replacing the windows, that just gets expensive. It’s a lot easier to just do on
just the first time you build the building. But it still is important to retrofit existing
buildings, if needed. Sequencing of projects in existing buildings can be an
issue, especially if the buildings are occupied. If it’s an office building and you want to
replace the lights, you have to work with the occupants to figure out when to do that.
With existing buildings, it can – a lot of times, if you’re doing the energy audit,
it can be different to figure out what exactly is in the building if there are no drawings
that it fits. So, things like wall insulation, roof insulation. It’s really hard to figure
out how much is in there because there’s drywall all over the walls. You can’t really see it. So,
the bullet is, “How old are the buildings?” So, within this, sometimes we see that if
you do any projects you have to, by code, bring the whole building up to code. So, that
can be an issue with older buildings. Then things like lead-based paint or asbestos could
become issues in older buildings. So, just something to be aware of. So, next slide. Okay,
so dedicated slide for new construction versus existing buildings. So, again, it is much
easier to implement energy efficiency measures into new construction. So, on the top right
there, I have an image of just a building as it was being built for a tribe. It was
a housing building. So, we did some energy modeling for this building to figure out what
are the best things they can do for this building before they even build it. So, it’s much less
expensive to do this, to design a building right the first time than to try to go back
and retrofit it. The other nice thing about new construction is
you can do things like building energy modeling to figure out what is the best orientation
of the building, how many windows should the building have, and things like that. I should
note, I do have more information in the appendix slide. So, once these slides are distributed
in AQ has more information on building energy modeling. But
it is still very important to retrofit existing buildings. So, again, some EEMs can’t be as
easily implemented. So, things like building orientation. Once a building’s built, it’s
pretty much set as the way it’s oriented. But one thing you should consider in existing
buildings, if you do have a replacement coming up – so say you have an air conditioner
that needs to be replaced. It’s at the end of its useful life. When
you are replacing that air conditioner, you could consider looking at the most efficient
air conditioner. Then, you’d have to pay for an air conditioner no matter what. To buy
the more efficient one might cost slightly more, but it would pay back over the life
of the equipment. So, there, you’re only paying the incremental cost of that more efficient
unit and not scrapping a functioning air conditioner and replacing it with a high-efficiency unit
when there is an operating unit still. That’s a really important thing to consider is replacing
equipment at the end of the life versus replacing something that’s actually functioning. So,
next slide. So, other things to consider. So, a lot of times
tribes are located in remote regions. So, can be difficult to access high-efficiency
equipment. We’ve seen where there can be limited access to a specialized labor force to implement
energy efficiency measures. I’ve heard that it can be difficult to attract the specialized
labor forces. But I should note there are many obvious benefits to living in these remote
regions also. The next slide. So, tribes sometimes are located in harsh climates
with high utility rates. So, within the harsh climates, there might be a limited season
for when construction can occur. So, that limits – maybe you can only build in the
summer. So, things like that have to be considered. There might be high space heating or space
cooling requirements. So, in really cold climates, there might be a very, very high space heating
load. But this harsh climate does open up opportunities for doing energy efficiency
measures. So, an example of this would be an extremely cold climate, increasing the
insulation of the walls and roofs and putting in better windows might make sense economically
because it is such a cold climate. So, tradeoffs, depending on how you look at things. So,
another thing to consider is, a lot of times, tribes are located in very high utility rate
regions. It makes it hard to save extra money because, a lot of times, you’ve spending money
on the electricity or energy itself. But then conversely, these high electric rates can
make energy efficiency measures much more financially viable because you’re getting
that payback over the energy savings by implementing the energy efficiency measures. So, next slide. So,
the third section in the agenda is, yeah, the most technical one. So, this is actually
identifying some of the energy efficiency measures. So, typically, within buildings,
we have these different groups of energy efficiency measures that include passive design. So,
building envelopes. Those are things like insulation in the roof, walls, windows, doors. The
next one, lighting. So, things like LED lighting, like _____ sensors. Plug loads or pretty much
any equipment of products you plug into the wall. Then finally, heating, ventilation,
air conditioning systems, which we’ll – excuse me – refer to as HVAC. So, these are the
systems that heat and cool the building, ventilate the building, dehumidify the building, and
so on. So, next slide. The first thing to consider is passive building
design. So, passive building design, though, is easiest to be done, again, in new construction
because you can define the orientation of the building. But what is passive building
design? It basically uses the local climate. So, things like the sun, wind patterns, things
like that to minimize the energy from buildings – in the building – while maintaining
a high comfort level. So, some of the strategies include building orientation with the long
façade facing south. So, in colder climates, this allows the sun to penetrate into the
building and heat it up during the winter months, but then if you design a building
properly with its overhang, in the summer months, the sun won’t be able to get in the
building and the building will stay cool. Other things to consider. It’s much easier for daylighting
to control glare from the sun on the south and north façade than it is on the east and
west. A lot of times, we will see in passive design, they’ll have a lot of windows on the
south and north façade but not so much on the east and west. So, daylighting basically
uses the natural light from the sun and kind of control the electric lights depending on
how much light you are getting from the sun. So, you’re saving energy by getting those
electric lights or turning them off if they’re not needed. Also,
another big component of passive design – I mentioned it, touched on this a little bit
is a lot of times, the windows will have overhangs to allow for to control the solar gains of
the space and to control glare into the space for daylight. So, properly designed overhangs
so that you allow sun to penetrate in the winter and keeps the sun out in the summer. Having
operable windows is another feature. So, allowing the building’s occupants to open the windows
during maybe the swing seasons – the spring and fall – to allow for natural ventilation.
So, you locate these operable windows where the predominant winds are – the direction
and you allow the building to ventilate itself and cool it. Then
the final one is having a high thermal mass for the walls and floors. So, this kind of
ties into allowing the sun to penetrate during the winter months. You want it to absorb into
a high thermal mass or something like a concrete floor. Then that energy is stored and then
released when it’s cold at night. So, that’s a safety error with a passive design. Again,
passive design is much easier incorporated into new construction, but elements of passive
design can also be incorporated into existing buildings. Next slide. So,
the next section on building envelope. So, on the right, I have a couple of pictures
on increased attic insulation, better windows. I think these were double-pane windows that
were being installed with a good seal. But building envelope measures include anything
from roof or attic insulation. This measure is typically very cost effective, especially
in cold climates. Roofs and attics are much more accessible than the walls. So, a lot
of times, we can increase the insulation of the roof and attics spaces pretty easily.
That’s a great measure to consider. Wall insulation, again, a little bit more difficult
in existing homes or buildings. Ground insulation can also be difficult in build – it says
homes but homes and buildings, just larger buildings in general. Air sealing can typically
be very cost-effective. So, these are things like caulking around the windows, making sure
there are seals around the doors. Typically, these measures are relatively inexpensive
and pay off pretty well. Then installing high-performance windows and doors.
Then designing the buildings with overhangs and shading devices. So, those are measures
to consider for building envelope. Next slide. So, next element or energy efficiency measure
would be lighting. So, my biggest one, I have it in big, bold, red font is install LED lighting.
So, the cost of LED lighting has come way down. There are just many advantages. I have
a separate slide just for LED lighting. But they’re just so much more efficient than incandescent
bulbs. Even they have many benefits over CFLs. So, CFLs are the kind of curlicue-looking
bulbs. Then, also, you can replace the linear fluorescents.
A lot of times, the T8 or T12 or T5 lamps can be replaced directly with LED lights and
save a lot of energy. I should note the costs are constantly coming down for the LED lights
since more and more manufacturers make them. Other things to consider is just simply turn off
the lights when you’re not using the space and then implementing lighting or installing
light occupancy sensors. There are limited use for lighting occupancy sensors in homes,
but a lot of use can be – it can be used a lot in commercial buildings and in government
buildings, things like that. Next slide. So, here’s the slide dedicated just to LED lighting,
just to give you some highlights on why exactly you should focus on this one. It’s much more
efficient than incandescent lighting. For a 60-watt bulb, the LED light uses only 10
watts. You could use them in commercial or residential applications. You can use them
for exterior lighting. They work well in cold climates. There
are more and more lamps entering the market. So, it’s a pretty safe bet to assume if you
have an existing incandescent light, a strange light bulb type, there probably is a manufacturer
that makes an LED replacement for it. LEDs last a much longer time, about 50,000 hours.
So, that’s about six years if your operated continuously. The light isn’t affected by
frequent switching. Again, they work well in cold climates. There’s no
mercury like in CFLs, so the disposal is easy. They have a great color range. So, the colors
don’t look weird under LED lighting. There’s no warm-up time for the lights to get to full
brightness. There’s no breakable glass or filaments. So, just a lot of advantages to
use LED lighting. Next slide. Another thing to consider more so, again, in the commercial
or government buildings would be installing lighting occupancy sensors. So, there’s a
photo of a wall switch lighting occupancy sensor that might be used in a private office.
So, there are different types of lighting occupancy sensors. There’s the infrared. So,
this detects small amount of movement. These are typically the wall-mounted ones that you
see there in the photo. There are also ultrasonic. So, these are, a lot
of times, in larger spaces. So, things like open office areas. They’re installed on the
ceiling. These detect small amounts of noise. So, the ultrasonic detect noise. Then they
do make combination sensors that measure both infrared and ultrasonic. Again, basically,
the thinking is the sensor will detect when humans are present and turn on a light and
then turn them off when nobody’s around. So, great technology to save energy. So, next
slide. So, plug loads. Plug loads are any device that
can be plugged into the wall. So, any appliances, things like refrigerators, television. But
then, also, things like office equipment. So, computers, monitors, printers. Basically,
for any of these appliances or equipment, use EnergyStar for any of them. The
thing that I should note is there are different levels of EnergyStar. So, you could kind of
try to look for the best of the best within a certain category to make sure you’re saving
as much energy out of a refrigerator as possible. I know, personally, when I bought a refrigerator
last summer, I saved a lot of energy just by getting a refrigerator that didn’t have
an automatic icemaker. It was a convenience I didn’t need. A lot of people do, but it’s
something to consider. I saw from the ratings like, “Oh, if I don’t get an icemaker, I save
this much more over the life of the refrigerator. So, I’ll use trays.” Things like that are
good to consider. Other measures within plug load is just turning
off appliances when they’re not in use. So, having smart power strips that turn off your
computer station at offices. A lot of times, people ask about phantom loads. So, these
are things like the clocks on your oven or microwave. So, if you have small loads, they
can add up in larger buildings. So, again, you can consider trying to have a switch that
turns all that off if that’s important to you. So, that’s the plug load slide. We can
go to the next. So, the next topic is heating ventilation and
air conditioning equipment. So, probably the most complicated one. So, it does vary _____
depending on the building type. Probably what’s in a home would be very different than what’s
in a tribal office or commercial building. But there are some similarities, too. So,
on the right there, I have a bunch of different photos of pumps or boilers or thermostats.
There’s a mini split heat pump and then name plate – excuse me – data, name plate of
the motor. So, the biggest thing to consider with HVAC equipment
is just to use the most efficient equipment possible. If you’re replacing a furnace, make
sure you’re replacing it with the most efficient one. Same thing with an air conditioner. If
you’re designing a new building, put in the most efficient equipment first off, and you’ll
save throughout the life of the building. So, that’s probably the most important one. A
lot of times through this measure, you’ll work with the installer or the designer to
figure out what are your options for the most efficient equipment. Usually, they’re pretty
good at telling you that, what the cost premium will be for getting the most efficient unit.
Then they can help you figure out how much you’ll save. A lot of times the name plate
data on the equipment itself will say how much you’ll save. Another
one is using programmable thermostats. So, I’ve got a slide dedicated to that, but that
can definitely save a lot of money. For larger buildings, consider using high-efficiency
motors that drive the fans or the pumps. And variable speed drives for the motors. So,
the variable speed drives will vary the speed of the motor so you can save a lot of energy
if a full load isn’t needed. So, next slide. So, when you specify high-efficiency equipment,
again, this is a pretty broad category. It could be an air conditioner or it could be
a furnace like the top photo. So, in a home, like if you look at the photos, there is this,
a lot of times, this yellow EnergyGuide tag that tells you how efficient is the unit.
So, it’s important to look at this if you’re considering buying a furnace of air conditioner
for the home. For bigger equipment, a lot of times it’s on a name plate. You’ll have
to go online to figure out, “All right, what’s the efficiency of this unit? Can I get a more
efficient one?” Things like that. But same general process is looking at the name plate. So,
you want to specify high-efficiency equipment. So, again, for air conditioners maybe flipped
to _____ furnaces, boilers, heat pumps, whatever equipment it may be, you can install the most
efficient one. Then, again, look at the name plate data or talk to an installer to figure
out what are your best options for installing the most efficient equipment. Next slide. So,
programmable thermostats. So, the photos on the right, the top one is kind of an older
programmable thermostat, but it still works. The photo on the right bottom is an older
thermostat that you just set it and it doesn’t change unless you go over and turn it off.
So, some of the applications for programmable thermostats is you can set the temperature
of the house for residential or for in commercial buildings you can set the temperature on certain
zones based on whatever zone is on that thermostat. Some of the requirements to look for is make sure
they’re easy to program. That’s key. A lot of times, they’re not and a lot of times people
will just put them in override and manually set them. Having a minimum seven-day scheduling
capability is important. So, you can schedule Monday through Sunday. Then having an adjustable
set band so you can set a range that the equipment can turn on and off. The
other thing I realize I should have put in, it is nice to have the phone accessible, things
like the Nest or there’s other ones, Ecobee thermostat, that you can control when you’re
away. If you forget to change your thermostat and you go away for a few days, you can access
it by phone, if you have Internet and change the settings. So, that’s nice to have, too.
So, some of the options you want, is just have occupied and unoccupied mode to be able
to control heating and cooling. So, next slide. So, water heating. So, this kind of goes into
like you save energy by saving the energy it takes to heat the water. So, using heat
pump water heaters or instantaneous water heaters or point of use water heaters can
save a lot of energy depending on how much hot water you use. Insulating the hot water
heaters is also a pretty good one. Then you can just reduce the hot water use at the load
itself. So, using lower-flow shower heads, faucets, aerators. Then
specifying high-efficiency appliances. So, things like front-loading washing machines
would be a great one. So, some of the photos on the right there kind of go along with those
measures. So, next slide. Then, the last one here is just considering an energy
awareness campaign. So, the benefit there is it educates the general public on easy
ways to save energy. So, the photo on the right is just one of the things we saw in
the village that we went to a few years ago. It’s just a little reminder to turn off the
lights when you’re not there. Then this also – it benefits the general public but it
also can benefit local school kids that can get involved in helping create things like
this. It educates the kids on energy use and gives them a fun way to learn more about it.
So, next slide. So, in summary, the next few slides are just a
summary of what we talked about. So, some of the challenges are there are competing
interests in buildings. Sometimes, within homes, it’s difficult to justify doing measures
if you’re renting a home because you don’t own it. Why should you do energy improvements
if it’s the homeowner’s responsibility? Same thing if you’re leasing a building. It’s sometimes
harder to justify, but not impossible. You just have to work with whoever owns the building.
Installing energy efficiency measures does take time and money. Another
challenge is people aren’t experts in energy efficiency, but I think anybody is – it’s
possible to learn the basics so you can just start the ball rolling and work towards those
things and figure out the bright people to work with who can help you ultimately achieve
your goals. There are different energy efficiency measures that work well in different climates,
but things like, again, LEDs work well or EnergyStar equipment well in any climate.
Some of the rebates and the grants can be confusing but they’re still important to pursue.
Then, having low utility rates can be a challenge, but conversely, if you have a high utility
rates, it can be beneficial. Next slide. So, when – identifying the energy efficiency
measures. So, here are, again, a summary of those measures. So, passive design, looking
at orientation, window placement, window to wall ratio, operable windows, thermal mass,
the overhangs. Daylighting I forgot to put in there, but daylighting’s important. So,
all components of passive design. The building envelopes. So, increasing insulation levels
in the roofs, walls, grounds, floor. Then reducing infiltration. Putting in better windows,
doors. Within lighting, installing LEDs using lighting occupancy sensor, utilizing daylighting,
if possible. Within plug loads, again, just purchasing EnergyStar appliances and equipment.
Then for heating, HVAC equipment, install the most efficient equipment. Consider programmable
thermostats. Install variable speed drives under bigger building motors. Specifying the
most efficient motors, things like that will be important. Next slide. So,
just some of the general considerations. So, again, the energy efficiency options depend
on the type of the building, the size of the building. Are the buildings new construction
or existing buildings? Again, it’s much easier to implement new construction. But it’s still
important to retrofit existing buildings. Then, again, consider how old are the buildings
and see if there are possible code issues that you might have to deal with if it is
an older building. Next slide. So, some of the challenges that are more specific
to tribes is, again, located in remote regions. So, you might have limited access to equipment
or labor force. The harsh climate, but this can be an opportunity, too. Can open up certain
energy efficiency measures if you live in a – an example that I used is if you live
in a very cold climate, installing additional insulation might make a lot of sense. Then
living in regions with utility rates can greatly improve the economics, again, because you’re
saving more each utility bill cycle, because your rate are higher. The more you save, the
more money you can save. Next slide. Okay, so yeah, that’s it. James Jensen:             Thanks. Jimmy Salasovich:      So, that’s my
presentation. I guess it sounds like there will be questions now or if anybody has any
questions. James Jensen:             Yeah. Thanks, Jimmy. We did receive a few questions
and I’ll give them to you. But we are a little short on time, so please try to make the responses
quick. First one, if a home is being constructed or remodeled, would the building inspector
or permitting entity be responsible for identifying the EEMs versus the homeowner itself? Jimmy Salasovich:      Oh. So, the inspector
might help you. I don’t think it’s necessarily their job. Their job is more to do – make
sure it’s up to code. If the codes do require, which a lot of times they do like to meet
certain energy standards, they’ll make sure it does. I know, like in Colorado, I had a
certain amount of insulation that I needed to put in my walls. The inspector made sure
I did. The thing the inspector didn’t do was tell me, “Oh, if you put in this much more
you’d save X amount of energy throughout the life of the building.” So, I think they will,
to a certain point, to meet the code. But after that, it’s probably unlikely that it
wouldn’t be necessarily their responsibility. But they might be helpful, depending on what
kind of relationship you have, how well you know the inspector and stuff like that. They
could help you out. James Jensen:             Okay. Thanks. One more. We have other questions,
but I think most of these other ones are better saved for the end of the webinar. Last one
for you, Jimmy, is, “A concern about the cost of maintaining high-efficiency HVAC systems
versus kind of the lower-efficiency ones and does it pay back when you have to pay those
additional costs for the filters and the like?” Jimmy Salasovich:      Yeah. The maintenance is a very important considerate – HVAC is
probably the most complicated one. Something I can say, I’m doing a lot of work in Guam
right now. It’s a remote island. Small. A lot of the things challenges you might have
as a tribe. They’re located in a remote region, hard to get equipment, hard to get specialized
labor. They always emphasize, “Make sure it’s maintainable.” It does take a little bit extra
effort to find high-efficiency equipment that you can be assured your maintenance staff
can maintain. But yeah, it is a real thing that a lot – sometimes, the most efficient
equipment isn’t the easiest to maintain. So, you’ll want to make sure when your – if
it’s a new construction building, make sure, when you’re designing it, that it’s maintainable.
Then, for a retrofit, a lot of times it’s just talk to the installer and get their feedback.
They’re knowledgeable for the region. I think that would be a good path to take. But definitely,
it’s a great thing to consider. It’s – honestly, in Guam, where I’m working a lot now, it’s
the biggest issue. They know they could put in the highest efficient, most advanced technology.
That’s fine. They could put it in. But can they maintain it is a whole other question
that – yep, that’s a great question. I guess one something – okay, yeah. I was
going to say, one final thing to add to that is maybe not be the first person to install
a technology. Install like a step below the most advanced. Then you’re not the test subject
to see if it works or not. You install a high-efficiency equipment that’s tried and true. James Jensen:             Thanks,
Jimmy. A lot of good information. We appreciate your time and you’re free to go. Just a reminder,
Jimmy does have some extra slides that you can access on the website at the end of his
presentation that he didn’t have time to get to today on building modeling. Our next presenter
is Carrie Nelson. Carrie, please feel free to proceed. Your slides are up. Carrie Nelson:            Thank
you. Thank you for inviting me to speak on this webinar. Yes, good morning everyone.
My name is Carrie Nelson. I am the program manager for our low-income energy efficiency
grant program. Part of that program is working with tribes specifically. So, the energy efficiency
stuff I’ll be talking about today will be focused around low-income specifically, but
it applies across the board as well. The first few slides I’m going to go through pretty
quickly because it’s high-level just background. So, I’ll probably just spend a few seconds
on each. So, I’m with the Bonneville Power Administration. We are part of the U.S. Department
of Energy. Our headquarters in Portland, Oregon. What kind of sets us apart from other agencies
is that we are non-appropriated aside from our borrowing authority. That essentially
means we are funded through rate payers. So, customers, public utility customers that buy
their power from us and charge through rates pay us for the wholesale power that we sell
and that’s how we manage our budget. Next slide please. This
slide kind of covers how we get our energy sources. So, we have power plants. We’re mainly
a federally managed dams. We provide about a third of the electric power in the Northwest
and we have 142 utility customers. Specifically, that’s consumer-owned utilities. So, not investor-owned
utilities. Next slide. We also operate a large amount of the transition
in the Northwest. So, about three-quarters of the transmission system is managed by the
Bonneville Power Administration. Next slide. This is a map of sort of what I’m describing. So,
this is the area that we cover. A lot of our power comes from the Columbia River. This
map just shows the dams that we get our power from, the other power sources, our transmission
system. That purple line on the outside is our public utilities, our consumer-owned utilities
and their territories in the residents and businesses they serve. Next slide. So,
now, I’ll just get into the nitty-gritty of what we’re here for, our energy efficiency
program. One thing I like to kind of confess, I guess, is what makes our program easy to
implement is that we are required through the Northwest Power Planting Conservation
Act to adhere to certain standards. Some of those standards include fish and wildlife,
making sure we serve low-income customers, and making sure we serve rural and smaller
customers. So, with those sort of guidelines, that helps provide leverage for us to implement
programs such as these. Next slide. So, what I’m going to talk about today is our
Tribal Set Aside program. So, in 1999, we had an existing low-income program, but because
we’re a federal agency and because we have a trust responsibility, the pulled out some
of that funding to contract directly with tribes and a government to government relationship.
So, at that time, we had a $5 million budget. Now we’re almost to a $6 million budget. Ten
percent of that budget is pulled out to directly contract with tribes and to directly serve
low-income residential households. Next slide please. This
is another map that shows the tribes that fall within this qualifying area. There are
a lot of tribes in Washington that we work with. I think there’s 27 or 29 eligible tribes.
Because we’re public utility territory and some of those utilities are investor-owned
and not all tribes qualify for our program because of that, but many do in Washington
and Idaho and Oregon. We’re in the most western part of Montana. I wish I had a better map.
I’ve always tried to find one, but the pink areas are the tribal reservations that are
within our territory. This is a list of the tribes that qualify for this
program. This is mainly just because these slides are another time so you can reference
it. Next slide. Now I’ll just sort of talk about our program.
So, like I mentioned, we’re about at $5.7 million now. So, around $570,000.00 goes towards
our Tribal Set Aside program. Within that $5.7 million, the States are also required
to allocate a certain amount of funding to go towards tribes. So, in addition to the
funding that we directly contract with tribes, the States also have a percentage that they
do work with tribes as well. Just a little bit about the program. So, the presentation
that came before me was great because it kind of goes into the technical details. But this
program started out as weatherization for residential end users, so customers, and for
low-income specifically. Weatherization essentially means, as we sort of touched on, an auditor
will go into a home. In this particular case, auditors can go into commercial businesses
as well, et cetera. But they’ll go into a home. They’ll look around the home. They
will look at what that home needs to be better weatherized, meaning that it will retain the
HVAC, the heating in that home efficiently. So, sometimes that audit will result in recommendations
for air sealing to seal up all the cracks, for energy efficiency windows, for energy
efficiency doors, for attic insulation, a more efficient furnace, all of those things.
It’s all based on how much money, with this sort of funding, the cost effectiveness, it’s
based on how much money that energy efficiency technology would cost compared to how much
savings it’ll get within the first year and the value of those savings. So, for example,
in colder climates, more qualify because – for HVAC and weatherization often because you’re
saving more energy because you spend more money on HVAC in those colder climates in
the winter. So, we started out as weatherization program,
but we have expanded it and/or simplified it to have standalone measures as part of
our program, now. So, now we call it a Low-Income Efficiency Program. That just allows us to
do – offer some appliances. That’s basically just to move from non-EnergyStar to EnergyStar,
to qualify for that, mainly refrigerators and clothes washers and microwaves. We also
offer standalone heating. Mainly ductless heat pumps is a large part of our program
right now. Heat pump water heaters. Heat pumps are the main sources for HVAC savings in there.
Okay, next slide, please. So, I _____ _____ _____ on some of this, but the
main benefits of the Tribal Set Aside program is, again, as part of our trust responsibility
and to support tribal sovereignty. This allows for government to government partnership with
the tribe and to not require to send all that funding to State agencies. Directly funding
tribes also is, I believe, a more effective way to reach Native American households. It’s
tribal members and tribal businesses going out to do the outreach and qualification for
this program. I believe that’s more effective. We also allow a little bit more flexibility on
the implementation of these programs, that I’ll go into in another slide, to allow for
variances in tribal capacity, meaning staffing, funding, the size of the organization that’s
managing the program. Our program is sometimes managed through an elder program. Sometimes
it’s managed through natural resources. Oftentimes, the tribal picks this up in whatever agency
has the staffing to do it. So, we try to work to make that flexible so that any sort of
organization within the tribe can manage it. Then the other thing it does is that it can provide
long-term employment opportunities for tribal members, whether they continue working for
the tribe in this capacity or outside of the tribal offices. Specifically, as we all know,
energy efficiency has become a bigger thing. Being a certified energy auditor or an energy
weatherization installer, our program specifically uses DOE training offices. Having those qualifications
is very employable right now. So, I like that there’s long-term benefits that go beyond
just that year of funding for the program. Next slide, please. So,
our grants essentially say – we follow the Department of Energy’s Weatherization Program.
We have a DOE certified auditor go in. They recommend what measures go in. Then a certified
crew installs those measures. Then an inspector makes sure they did it correctly. We do that
so that people can put our funding with DOE and just run a program without having to learn
about our program as well. The State part of this program contracts out to
community action agencies, so county agencies throughout the nation that are already trained
in all of these things and are already DOE certified. So, that’s another reason why it’s
good to match with DOE. However, a few – a few? Gosh, now, over a decade ago, we started
making small changes to our grants to limit the amount of walkaways, which is basically
when you go into a home and you determine the cost to improve or fix a hole in a wall
or improve plumbing, a lot of things that are very common in low-income households,
those costs get so high that it doesn’t become cost effective to put the weatherization measures
in. So, we allow a higher percentage of dollars to go into the home just to make it healthier
and safer or to set it up for repairs that are related to HVAC or weatherization so that
more homes don’t have a walkaway towards the end of it because the repairs are too expensive
and allowable on the grant. The other thing we don’t require is that the house
doesn’t have to be a certain amount of years old and it doesn’t matter if the house has
just received services from DOE or another agency the year before. It still qualifies
to do work again if need be. Next slide, please. So, we have a variety of sizes and shapes of grants
that go out to tribes depending on the capacity and what they want to do with the funding.
So, some tribes have weatherization crews in-house or HVAC technicians in-house and
they just apply for training grants. So, they submit the trainings they want to go to keep
their staff certified. We give them a small grant. They use that to go and continue their
training requirements. Some tribes work with community action agencies or they have a weatherization
crews themselves and they need equipment either to provide for the agencies that they’re working
with locally at the tribe or to use themselves so they can just buy equipment. Those are
also smaller grants. Other tribes that have large weatherization programs,
we pay for everything. Those are larger grants. So, we pay for the labor costs that go into
weatherizing a home, the mileage. As we have already talked about, sometimes these are
very rural areas and just driving is an hour or so from one house to another or even more.
We pay for the materials. We pay for the whole program essentially. Then
for other tribes that really want to participate and give their households a way to purchasing
these programs but they don’t have the staffing capacity, we do these standalone measures.
So, appliances are an easy one. We do a simplified grant. It goes out to them and they go through
any house that doesn’t have an EnergyStar appliance and they replace it with an EnergyStar
one.  So, for tribes, the application is simple. The implementation is literally they
can sometimes just use the commercial entities to deliver and switch out the units. That’s
great for tribes that want to sort of dip their toes in this program but don’t have
the staffing. HVAC is a little bit higher of an involvement meaning
that you have to have a certified HVAC technician. But the tribes often just sub-contract out
to the HVAC technician. They can sweep through and do a bunch of households and put in a
ductless heat pump for a bunch of households in one year. The reason why I like those,
even though they’re a little bit more complicated – same with heat pump water heaters – is
that the end user, which in this case are low-income households, they see a difference
the first month. I mean some of them have been spending so much because their home is
not weatherized and they have expensive HVAC. They can see a monthly savings that they can
use that money somewhere else. So, that’s a really nice one that is lower effort than
a full-weatherization project. Weatherization projects are still the best. Low-income households
feel that difference in the quality of their air and their comfort and they see a change
in their bill immediately. So, it’s a wonderful public purpose program as well as a conservation
program. But when they can’t do that, there’s other options. Next slide, please. So,
I mentioned this in the previous slide. So, essentially, a slide can implement the whole
program on their own. Another option is we help them connect with their county agency
if they’re not already connected, and that’s their community action agency. They have the
funding in hand, the tribe does, that they can sub-contract out to the community action
agency who’s already certified in the DOE weatherization program and they will go do
the work for them in the households, but the tribe does the outreach. They qualify the
households and they manage the money. Then a couple of our tribes collaborate with other
tribes. So, to be an energy auditor through the DOE certification route, it’s an investment
of time and money. So, not everyone has an in-house auditor, but many of our tribes are
within an hour of each other. One has an auditor and one doesn’t. So, they’ll contract out
to that tribal auditor and that auditor will come over and audit a handful of homes then
go back. Then they’ll do the work and then they’ll come back and inspect it. Next slide,
please. Now, one thing I wanted to mention that we – we
go around the region every year and try to talk to most of our tribes and to get feedback
on the language in our grant program. One thing – this is with tribes but it’s also
with just low-income households in general, we have heard feedback that the qualifying
a house for low-income is not sensitive to tribal specific living conditions and low-income
specific living conditions and to try to improve our language on that. So,
a couple of years ago, we did the first change where we said, “You do not need to follow
DOE’s income qualifying guidelines specifically. You can follow any federal or agency income
qualifying guidelines.” Sometimes that does make a difference. Some are two in percent
of poverty. Some are at 150 percent of median income. Some are county-specific because counties
have such a different cost of living. So, that allowed tribes to, again, leverage the
money with other funding sources and qualify the same household but use a different financial
source for different programs and already have a list that qualified for the program. But
then, further that that, we heard from tribes specifically like when tribes have members
that want to live all on the reservation but they have limiting housing stock. So, more
than the typical amount of people live inside a household. So, they have to include all
those people’s income for this income qualifying guideline but those incomes aren’t necessarily
going into the house or stay in the house. Sometimes people have people staying with
them temporarily. But all of these things kind of tip that scale in a misleading way
when you’re doing income qualifying. So, now, we offer if the tribe wants to write
their own policy of how they would like to qualify a low-income household, and we approve
it, they can use that policy. So, it is a longer route. Our contracting officers have
to review it. It’s newer, so we haven’t really tried it out very much, but that is something
we have put on our grants. We have one tribe that’s just trying it out to date. I think
that should help with the income qualifying side of things. Next slide, please. This
is a picture of one of our workshops. So, we have a couple DOE training centers in our
region. This is inside a warehouse and it’s sort of a makeup house, a model house to practice
doing blower door testing, to practice a bunch of technologies to train in weatherization
and HVAC certification. So, this is – I think we had seven different tribes send their
– this is a program management training to this center. We meet for three days, we
talk about each other’s programs, we give each other advice. Then, usually, we’ll either
get a technical level training or, in this case, since these are all the program manager
side of things, we got a high-level training and sort of what happens in a house, just
for more of a grant oversight/grand understanding point of view. Next slide, please. This
is the Yakama Housing Authority crew. They do have their own in-house weatherization
crew and they have for years. This is at a conference we had that was for tribes in the
Northwest. They built this fake wall and put in a ductless heat pump so that they could
take it on the road and train other tribal members on how to do best practices of installing
ductless heat pumps. So, this is just them at the conference doing a training in collaboration
with – the man on the far left is a DOE training center trainer. So, they worked together
to do this. Next slide. This is out in Yakama. So, another training we
do is for the more technically-focused or construction-focused crews. We go out and
we – Yakama is sort of – the Yakama crew is sort of the mentor. Then we bring in a
DOE trainer. Then we weatherize a home for three days that qualifies for the BPA program.
It’s sort of a mentorship thing at the same time. They get some credits for doing the
training and they get to do hands-on work and talk with each other while they do it.
And a house ends up being weatherized. Next slide. Then
the last thing we do is we always try to offer to connect the tribe with the local utility
because the local utility also has funding given to them that they’re required to spend
on conservation in our region, because of that Northwest Power Act. So, we always try
to connect them with their local utility to see if they want to do work together to do
residential or other larger projects. The grant program is confined to residential.
But the utility are often doing larger commercial specifically projects. Sometimes we connect
the tribes with them if they’re interested in doing any of their businesses with an energy
efficiency makeover. Next slide, please. This is basically sort of what works. I think that
meeting in person is always better. I think directly funding the tribes has been a major
improvement to the program and to support our trust responsibility. Aligning the grants
with DOE or with other funding sources always makes it easier. Connecting tribes to their
community action agencies, if they wish to do it that route, works well if they have
limited staffing. Providing training. Many tribes will always participate in the training
part of this. Then we try to make our reporting really simple since this a public purpose
program and not an acquisition program. That’s easy for us to do. It’s not always easy, but
we do count the households but it’s not as burdensome as trying to really articulate
on a savings amount. Next slide, please. Then I always just end on this because the thing
I like about this program the most is that it conserves energy. So, it has amazing environmental
benefits. But oftentimes, low-income people don’t get to participate in these kind of
efforts because a lot of times it’s expensive to take – to be involved with conservation
efforts. With this program, they are becoming involved with conservation efforts, but then
they also feel something real with the state of their home. The quality of their home feels
different when this work is done, specifically the weatherization. So,
I just always like to end on this quote to remind us that there’s a lot of non-energy
benefits that come along with weatherization that are hard to quantify, but that are real.
We get these sort of letters all the time. I think that’s my last slide. Yes. Thank you. James Jensen:             Great.
Thanks, Carrie. Excellent program you have there. Interesting stuff. We do have a couple
of questions for you, but they’re kind of specific to your area. So, I’ll just send
those to you and you can answer those offline. So, thanks, Carrie. Our next presenter is
Bryan Mignone. Bryan, you can proceed as soon as we get your slides up. Bryan you might
be on mute. Or you are on mute. There you go. You were unmuted for a second. There you
go. Bryan Mignone:         How’s that? Can you hear me? James Jensen:             Yes.
Thanks, Bryan. Bryan Mignone:         Okay. Okay, thank you, James. I’m going to be presenting,
basically talking about Oneida Indian Nation’s relatively recent experience with Department
of Energy grant-funded tribal energy programs, which we’ve had tremendous success with to
date. So, I think, for me, it just serves as sort of a case study of how the process
should work in terms of a planning piece. Then moving on to implementation. Next slide,
please. The Oneida Indian Nation is located in Central
New York State. We have an approximately 300,000-acre reservation that was created and recognized
by the 1794 Treaty of Canandaigua. As a result of the Oneida’s being the first – what’s
called the allies of the colonists in the American Revolutionary War of Independence.
Over the past several decades, within that 300,000-acre reservation, the Nation has maintained
and/or reacquired approximately 17,943 non-contiguous acres. So, it’s checkerboarded, which makes
centralization of operations somewhat difficult. But the map shows you sort of geographically
where we’re located. I’d also just mention that in Central New York, we have long and
dark, gray winters and short, beautiful summers and falls. But that has an impact and implication
for energy usage. Next slide, please. The tribe is a federally-recognized self-governing
sovereign Indian Nation. We have approximately 1,000 enrolled members, many of whom are located
in Central New York State on or within or near the reservation. Our governmental structure,
the Nation is governed by Council, which is comprised of up to three members from each
of the Nation’s clans. Council then selects up to three Nation representatives to represent
the Nation in its governmental and business affairs. Currently, the Nation has one Nation
representator. That’s Ray Halbritter, and he served in that position since 1975. Next
slide, please. The Nation’s Council has developed three long-range
goals to guide the social and economic development of the Nation’s community. These are to help
the Nation members achieve their highest potential in education, physical, mental health, and
economic development; to implement the legal and administrative structure necessary for
the stability and protection of Nation sovereignty, treaty rights, and government to government
relationships; and to acquire, develop, and secure resources to achieve economic, social
empowerment, and self-sufficiency. It may not be entirely evident how this is related
to energy usage, but the Nation’s ability to preserve its environment and to preserve
resources, including financial resources, all help it and its members achieve these
three long-range goals. Next slide, please. As I mentioned, the Nation’s lands are checkerboarded.
They’re scattered. So, there are different uses throughout the reservation. Some of the
properties support Nation governmental facilities like health, education, and cultural activities.
There’s also member housing throughout Nation lands. There are hunting lands and numerous
non-gaming enterprises like our Savon and Maple Leaf market/gas station and convenience
stores. We operate a few marinas up at Oneida Lake, as well as a hunting preserve and a
car care operation. Operations are continuously expanding and diversifying. We also have multiple
gaming facilities including Point Place Casino, Yellow Brick Road Casino, and a 3,200,000-square
foot Turning Stone Resort Campus, which will figure prominently for some of the projects
I’ll be talking about in a little bit. There are third-party businesses who operate on
Nation lands. These include Dunkin Donut stores, retail shopping, a top supermarket, and dining
establishments as well. Then, finally, there’s approximately almost 7,500 acres in Madison
and Oneida Counties in Central New York State of Nation land that are undeveloped or active
in an active agricultural lands. Next slide, please. The
Nation, as I mentioned earlier, recognizes the need to be a responsible steward of its
resources and reflective of cultural values. The long-term energy goal of the Nation is
to embrace an environmental policy that uses sound environmental management practices to
preserve and protect natural resources to ensure a safe, helpful, and productive environment
for current residents and visitors as well as for the seventh generations to come. The
Nation is committed to sustainable development and, to achieve this goal, has committed to
pollution prevention, waste reduction, wise use of renewable and non-renewable resources,
conservation of energy, and preservation of important aspects of its historical, cultural,
and natural heritage. These values all are important factors in the energy projects the
Nation have pursued in the past several years. Next slide, please. Within
the past five years, specifically, the Nation has pursued energy projects that have been
supported by U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Grants and, specifically, have – there were
three in the past five years. First was a $1 million community scale clean energy deployment
combined heat and power grant that was awarded in 2015 and which finished up the end of 2019
and we’re in the process of closing out, doing our final reports. The
second grant was a $153,977.00 first steps toward developing renewal energy and energy
efficiency and tribal lands grant that was awarded in 2017 and completed in 2018. The
third is a $1 million energy infrastructure deployment on tribal lands grant that the
Nation received in 2019 and is currently working on. Next slide, please. So,
I’m going to go through those three projects one by one just to sort of talk about the
linear evolution of how we got from 2015 to today. The first grant, the community scale
clean energy deployment combined heat and power project was focused on the Nation’s
Turning Stone Resort Campus. This is sort of a birds-eye view. Just to give you a sense
of how many different components of the campus there are, like I mentioned earlier, it’s
about 3,200,000-square feet of facility space and it involves attached and detached facilities
and buildings that offer various amenities or serve various purposes. Recreational, entertainment,
administrative, business support, and as well as non-gaming related businesses. If you look
up to your left, there’s a Savon, which is a convenience store and gas station and a
car care, which is a car repair and inspection shop. Next slide, please. The
reason why I mentioned that Turning Stone features prominently is because Turning Stone
is the area’s, not just the Nation’s but the local area’s largest consumer of electricity.
This slide gives you some of the data of how much electricity from the local utility is
utilized by Turning Stone. I think the fact that always gets me is that, in a given year,
the amount of electricity and natural gas purchased could light over 104,100 homes and
heat over 7,600 homes in New York State alone. So, it was a prime location and facility for
the Nation to focus on energy conservation. Next slide, please. The
ultimate project objectives for the Nation were to leverage the Nation’s existing Central
Utility Plant, which is located near the Turning Stone campus. That plant produces most of
Turning Stone’s energy and it utilizes natural gas. So, we wanted to leverage that to generate
significantly more energy from a clean energy source and reduce our dependence on fossil
fuels, and, in the same time, recognize significant cost savings associated with this project. Specifically,
what we wanted to do was utilize 100 percent of the thermal energy that was produced by
our current gas turbine for additional energy usage and production. Prior to this project,
the steam that was generated by this turbine was just released into the atmosphere and
was a complete waste of energy. The other objective is to reduce peak electrical usage
by the facilities on the Turning Stone Resort Campus and achieve additional energy cost
reduction. In fact, during the winter months, Turning Stone is able to operate 100 percent
on its Central Utility Plant and doesn’t need to supplement with electricity from the utility.
Next slide, please. This is the pre-project system at the Central Utility
Plant. I think it’s just helpful because it gives a sense of how the system works. But,
most importantly, when we look at the next slide, you’ll see the change where the steam
that used to be vented into the atmosphere is now recirculated, captured, pressurized,
and put through a second steam turbine to generate additional electricity for purposes
of heating and electrifying the Turning Stone Resort Campus. Next slide. Yep. This
was a project that had been in the works for some time for the Nation. It had kept coming
up as a proposed capital improvement project but was consistently put off due to competing
priorities and cost considerations. So, I always like to point out that the $1 million
U.S. Department of Energy grant really pushed this across the finish line to make it a reality.
It really has had an impact in terms of energy conservation and cost savings. Next slide,
please. As I mentioned, we’re pretty much closing this
out. It’s currently the project and the new equipment is currently fully operational.
As of last month, we’ve produced approximately an additional 3.7 million kilowatts per hour
and each month we see continued increases in efficiency and capacity problems at the
overall plant. Specifically, it’s resulted – oh. Specifically, it’s resulted in an
increase in overall operational efficiencies, reduced dependency on the grid, and reduced
electricity bills. Next slide, please. Another non-quantifiable but equally important outcome
of the project is the demonstration of the Nation’s commitment to the stewardship of
its resources for the benefit of its members and to the seventh generation to come, by
making itself more self-sufficient and less reliant on energy from the public utility.
Also, we’re generating electricity using a previously wasted thermal energy and electricity
– electric demand by Turning Stone has decreased, which has also resulted in less demand on
the grid as an added benefit for the surrounding community. Next slide, please. The
success of this project really reinforced the Nation’s interest in addressing energy
needs as a way to further our environmental stewardship while producing fiscally sound
results. We were looking for other opportunities to increase energy efficiency at about the
same time that the Department of Energy’s First Steps toward developing renewable energy
and energy efficiency on tribal lands opportunity was released. Part of this was because I think
prior to this time, a lot of our energy conservation efforts were really siloed. They were focused
on locations or departments and there really wasn’t a concentrated approach to doing this.
Next slide, please. So, for that project, that planning project, under
the First Steps grant, we contracted with an energy consultant to provide an analysis
for approximately 50 buildings, which more than 3.5 million square feet of space, and
to develop a plan to move forward with the implementation of energy efficiency measures.
It was performed up to ASHRAE Level 2 requirements and the requirements of the Department of
Energy’s First Steps grant. As part of this process, before the full audit was commenced,
the Nation provided consultants with consumption data for gas, electricity, oil, propane, and
building usage profiles for all of the facilities studied. Next slide, please. Again,
one of the maiden facilities studied was the Turning Stone Resort Casino. But other facilities
included the Yellow Brick Road Casino, our gas stations and convenience stores, warehouses
that are located throughout the Nation lands, administrative buildings located in different
areas, the marina operations, and governmental and community facilities also located throughout
Nation lands on the reservation. Next slide, please. Part
of the process for the planning and the audit was, one, to decide on boundaries to identify
the buildings that would be studied. Almost, I would say probably about 95 percent of the
buildings were identified as buildings to be studied as part of this project. Choosing
a baseline year. We established a baseline based on the most recent year of utility bills
that were available prior to the start of the project, which was October 2016 through
September 2017, which aligns with the Nation’s fiscal year. The
third step was to gather energy data. This included 24 consecutive months of utility
data and it was entered into the consultants benchmarking program. Where we didn’t have
a complete building history for the baseline energy use intensity, it was based on the
established benchmark and onsite observations made by Nation staff and the consultant. Next
slide, please. The next step was the actual energy audit, which
was conducted on all the buildings identified in step one. The audit was used to determine
how energy is consumed in the facilities and identify opportunities to improve energy efficiency.
Step five was identifying the opportunities and outlining them. They were developed by
the consultant based on the site surveys and were presented with estimated savings and
implementation costs for each measure that was recommended as an opportunity. Final
step was for the Nation to review the audit and the reports and prioritize those opportunities
where – for actions to be taken, which we completed in, I believe, late 2018. These
were the deliverables. This is just a snapshot of the deliverables that were available that
the consultant provided. It was a lot of information and they consisted of the analysis and the
recommendations for the study properties. The Nation was able to also obtain the one-year
free license for the benchmarking software tool which we continue to use today for purposes
of measuring and implementing the energy efficiency measures. Next slide, please. The
report that we got from the consultant outlined feasible technology alternatives. These included
LED lighting, electronically commuted motors for coolers for each facility. Each measure
was described in detail, evaluating the compatibility or non-compatibility, in some instances, with
the existing infrastructure operation and costs with assumptions clearly stated. Next
slide, please. This just gives you a snapshot of how long for
the timeline for the project. I think it’s helpful because, while it was a lot of work,
there was a lot to be studied. We completed the project in a relatively quick amount of
time. It was really just a year worth of work for the project to kick off to close out.
It generated very valuable set of data and information for the Nation to pursue its next
project. Next slide, please. As I mentioned, that First Steps planning grant
project, which was completed in 2018, really laid the foundation for the Nation’s third,
current, and most recent development of energy supported project. Late last year, we began
implementing many of the recommendations from that plan and received a $1 million Department
of Energy grant to support those efforts. Next slide, please. The
project for implementation encompasses 27 buildings located on Nation lands including
offices, cultural centers, police facilities, convenience stores, and of course, the largest
being our Turning Stone Resort and Casino, which include gaming space, lodging, spas,
entertainment, dining and banquet facilities, as well as administrative and support offices.
Next slide, please. The project aims to further the Nation’s ultimate
energy goals to preserve and protect natural resources in order to ensure a safe, helpful,
and productive environment for the current residents, visitors, as well as for the seventh
generation to come. We’ve estimated that the project will produce over $450,000.00 in savings,
a decrease of more than 4 million kilowatts per hour and 50,000 therms of energy usage,
and a reduction of more than 3,000 metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions annually.
Next slide, please. Some of the energy efficiency measures that are
being implemented are interior and exterior LED lighting replacement or installation across
25 buildings. This will replace existing incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge
fixtures with LED fixtures. And exterior lighting, which will primarily be throughout the Turning
Stone parking lots will be updated to be LED fixtures, which will include removal of existing
features and installation of the new fixtures, as well as replacement of light poles to accommodate
these new fixtures. In other facilities, interior lighting will also be converted to LED and,
again, will consist of removal of existing fixtures, installation of new fixtures, and
occupancy sensors to further enhance energy conservation measures. Next slide, please. Remote
HVAC management was another recommendation from the planning grant that is being implemented
in about 19 buildings. This includes installation of programmable thermostats and a remote connection
implementation of demand control ventilation, CO2 sensors, and remote terminal unit distributed
controllers. Next slide, please. Then the third category is to serve a hodge-podge
of other energy efficiency measures which includes hot water upgrades, refrigeration
condensing unit upgrades, walk-in evaporator fan, snowmelt boilers in one building, and
HVAC replacement in another. So, as you can see, there’s a whole very diverse array of
measures to be implemented and a diverse array of buildings for those measures to be implemented
in. The important piece for this project will be verification of energy and cost savings. To
do that, as I mentioned, we continue to use the benchmarking software from the consultant
to – that helped with our planning grant. We’re going to use that to compare energy
usage for the 12 months prior to implementation of these measures to at least the 12-month
period after implementation to demonstrate overall energy and cost savings. There are
going to be some places where the software can’t be utilized. For example, Turning Stone,
due to the size of the facility and the fact that we don’t have the – the different parts
of the facility are not separately metered. So, instead of using the software for that, we’re
going to calculate savings based on baseline data that was provided in the 2018 audit.
For each EEM, project the annual energy savings, the time of commissioning, and calculate the
cost savings based on the projected energy savings, multiplied by the current utility
rates. Next slide, please. This project, as I mentioned earlier, was just
started last year. We kicked it off in September of 2019. We licensed that benchmarking software
tool in October 2019, and are in the procurement stage right now, spending time with vendors
reviewing samples and specifications in preparation for our formal bidding process for many of
the materials that we’ll need for the implementation measures. Next slide, please. That’s
about it for my presentation. Thank you. James Jensen:             Thank, Bryan. We really appreciate it. What an interesting
story and success story for your three projects there. Our last presentation, from Dan Smith,
we’re going to squeeze it in here. It looks like we’re going to be a little bit tight
on time. But hopefully we can just go a little beyond the hour and wrap it up. If we don’t
have time to get to all the questions today, I’ll try to forward the specific questions
to the individual speakers and they’ll try to respond over email. So, go ahead, Dan. Dan Smith:                 
All right, thank you, James. So, as the introductions at the beginning of the webinar said, I am
Dan Smith. I’m a project manager with Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium. We serve
the rural sanitation and public health needs of tribes throughout the entire State of Alaska.
Next slide, please. So, our – we are a state-led tribal consortium,
as I said. We have over 3,000 employees, mostly in the hospital epidemiology and health divisions.
I work for the Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, roughly 250 employees.
The Rural Energy Initiative is a tiny fraction of a tiny fraction. We’re only about seven
employees at present. Next slide, please. So, I apologize for not including this, but I
have a real slick pie chart that shows energy costs make up over two-thirds of the cost
of operating a sanitation system in rural Alaska. That – oh, I apologize. Not two-thirds,
one-third. Over one-third. So, reducing the dependence on imported diesel fuels to power
these rural water and sanitation systems, some of the easy options we have are energy
efficiency, optimizing these microgrids because the vast majority – something like 99 percent
– of the communities are not connected to an overarching grid. Then, once you have gotten
all of the low-hanging fruit, that’s when you will start exploring the integration of
alternative energies such as wind or solar, in some cases hydro or geothermal. Next slide,
please. So, this is just a typical comparison of the operations
costs associated with these rural sanitation systems. So, the blue portions of the bar,
that’s the average fuel and heating costs. As you can imagine, it takes quite a bit of
heat to keep water liquid at 40 below. So, the vertical bars here, we have a circulating
vacuum system, which is what we’ll be talking about mostly today; circulating gravity system,
which is your standard water and sewer systems that you would find in the Lower 48; and then
the third bar there is the washeteria, which is a public laundromat/shower house. Then
the last bar is typical conventional system that one might find in the Lower 48. So,
jumping back – oh, sorry. Yeah. The red portion of those bars is the average community
cost of the electric share. Then the green portion of the bar is the power cost equalization,
or PCE share. That’s something that’s unique to Alaska because, as James said during our
introduction, many times Alaskan communities will be paying more than $0.50 per kilowatt
hour. What the power cost equalization fund does, it’s a State subsidy that will subsidize
a portion of that electrical cost. So, they generally try and bring it in line with this,
the weighted averages of our population centers. So, like Anchorage, the largest population
center, we pay about $0.20 per kilowatt hour. So, the goal of the power cost equalization
program is to equalize that cost for rural communities, bring it in line. Next slide,
please. So, just a quick overview of what a vacuum sewer
system is. Typically, most homes are plumbed using gravity. The old adage of wastewater
flowing downhill applies. So, it’s very common that in places where you do not have the topography
where you can use gravity to do the work for you to take the sewage away from a home, we
will include a vacuum pump, similar to what you might find in an airline or an airplane
bathroom, you know, where you flush the toilet and it pulls the sewage down to the collection
point. To the collection point, it’s then pumped to the local sewage lagoon or however
a certain community is handling their sewage. Next slide, please. So,
a little bit more on this. It’s not a new technology. It’s been around since 1882. It’s
very uncommon in the contiguous U.S. Up here in Alaska, it’s fairly common. A good chunk
of villages have it. It’s not every village, but out on the tundra where there are not
very many hills or you have a lagoon that’s above a grade. Next slide, please. This
is a typical overview. You have a collection tank right in the middle there. You have vacuum
pumps off to the left that bring the sewage into the collection point. The control panel
is the brains of the operation. It tells you how often your pumps are running, both the
vacuum pumps bringing it into the system. Any heating that needs to be done, if you
have a cold snap and it gets to 40 or 50 below 0, you want to avoid having that sewage freeze
up for, I hope, the reasons are obvious. Then, on the affluent side, you have sewage pumps
that then pump it to either the treatment plant or the sewage lagoon or septic tank
or wherever the community – whatever their sanitation system looks like. Next slide,
please. So, first up on our list is Noorvik. It’s located
in the Northwest Arctic, about 50 miles east of Kotzebue. I want to say roughly seven miles
north of the Arctic Circle, just about at the Arctic Circle. It’s a population of 650
people. They pay $5.65 per gallon of heating fuel. This is in a place where there is no
access to natural gas. Solar thermal heating is – you can only really
use it in the summer when you don’t really need much heating. So, yeah, they have to
either barge or fly in all their heating fuel. Then their electricity costs, alone the community
must shoulder the burden of $0.65 per kilowatt hour. Then, with the State subsidy that covers
a portion of that amount, it brings the cost down to $0.19 per kilowatt hour. So, their
system is a mixture of gravity stations, common in the Lower 48, and vacuum systems, which
was the focus of this project. Next slide, please. So,
for this project, we looked at three communities, total. Noorvik is just the first one. I’m
not sure if I’ll have time to get to the other two. But for Noorvik, we implemented – the
main implementation we did was we put in new vacuum pumps, new controls. We also went through
and – this is a picture of the oil-fired boilers that provide heat to the system. We
actually did some boiler tuning where we gave them new controllers. You can kind of see
it on the left boiler there. It’s the little glowing controller there. We put a new controller
on there that’s programmable. We also opened it up, cleaned out the heat exchangers
to allow better heat transfer from the exhaust gas into the water that was circulated through
the heating system. Something similar to this that you might find in the contiguous 48,
the Lower 48, is if you have refrigeration units. If you’re cleaning out the refrigeration
or heat exchange coils, or there was some talk about heat pumps, if you’re making sure
those are cleaned probably once a year, or just at least check them once a year, make
sure there’s not a lot of build-up on there. Something that’s very simple to do. It could
take an operator maybe an hour, at most, to clean refrigeration coils, but the savings
could be immediate. So, the overall cost for these upgrades to Noorvik
was about $200,000.00. That does sound like a lot, but keep in mind, this is a very remote
village; 50 air miles from the local hub community which is, again, above the Arctic Circle.
So, a good chunk of that $200,000.00 was the freight cost. I don’t have figures on exactly
how much that was. When we were originally starting this project,
we were anticipating savings of about $50,000.00 per year. If we look at the table – I apologize
for jumping around. If we look at the table, we compared the electrical costs from 2013
at $39,000.00 per year compared to the 2018 costs was $41,813.00. So, that is a seven
percent increase in cost over those five years. Then if you look at the low, at the average
electric rate, the average electric rate increased by 34 percent. So,
over on the right-hand side, that variance, percent variance column is comparing how much
more the electrical cost would have increased if we did not do these upgrades. So, that’s
a 24 percent variance. So, if we did not do these energy efficiency upgrades, the electrical
cost would have risen by 24 percent as opposed to the seven percent that it actually did.
So, the community is actually saving $10,000.00 just in electrical costs. This
is something I hope to touch on later, but the last bullet point you see on this page,
data collection, we were only able to acquire electrical data for this period. The records
keeping relating to heating fuel cost – so I have a picture here of the oil-fired boilers.
We didn’t have substantial data on how much oil was going into those boilers to say how
much they were saving. So, it’s really hard to gauge how much you’re actually saving.
We expected to save $50,000.00 per year, but it’s really hard to say how close to that
we got. We know we are saving at least $10,000.00 just in electricity but without those hard
numbers, it’s really hard to tell. Next slide, please. So,
this is just a picture of the – a before picture of the old vacuum pumps. You have
the two vacuum pumps working in tandem or one is a backup in the foreground. In the
background, you have a large tank. That is the holding tank. Next slide, please. This
is the after. We’ve got some very nice, slick, new vacuum pumps put in. They’re a lot leaner
looking. We didn’t have to do any major overhauls with the overall infrastructure. Just replace
in kind. Next slide, please. This is an image of our updated vacuum pump controls.
I couldn’t find a before picture, but there was wires just hanging out everywhere, loose
wires. This one, the controllers were also upgraded. Made them programmable. It’s more
an advanced version of a programmable thermostat that has been mentioned earlier in this webinar.
Next slide, please. One thing that is kind of
unique to Alaska is heat add. The Oneida Nation that previously presented mentioned something
about combined heat and power. We try to do that as much as we possibly can in rural Alaska,
being that pretty much every single rural community has a diesel generator. We try and
capture as much of that radiator heat coming off the diesel generator and use that radiator
heat to offset the diesel heating costs in the water plant or in the water and sewer
plant. So, what we’re able to do is make sure those heat recovery systems, making sure the
radiation system from the local generator is optimized. It’s plugged in. It has up-to-date
controls. Here on the left, you see two – I believe those are Honeywell controllers – that
replaced old, outdated controls. Again, it’s very similar to programmable thermostats. That’ll
do it for Noorvik. If we want to skip over the next couple of slides. I’ll just say next
slide. Kotlik. This is, again, it shows that there is a – oh. Yeah, keep going. So, we
also did similar work in Kotlik and similar work in Alakanuk. Next slide, please. Next
slide. Oh, wait. Oh, yeah. Next slide. Next slide. Next slide. Yeah, so – oh, back one.
Yeah, so our key figures are, first and foremost, is making sure operations training is addressed,
making sure people are aware of the energy they are using in their daily work. So, making
sure, in this case, our water and sewer plant operators know what pumps do what and what
they have to turn on and what is critical for their operation. Then
beyond that, once you have the system working and performing its primary function is business
training. A huge hole in this analysis that we performed for this project was finding
the data. Without good bookkeeping and records keeping, that data is very hard to come by
and it’s very hard to make informed decisions on which energy efficiency measure will have
the most impact. As we talked about in the case of Noorvik, we saved about $10,000.00
per year just in electrical costs, but we were anticipating $50,000.00. So, that means
there’s a $40,000.00 gap of savings that we’re not sure if we are able to achieve that. If
we were able to find good, solid data regarding their oil and heating usage, then that could
probably account for most, if not all, of that $40,000.00 gap in Noorvik. Another
thing to consider is root cause analysis. When you’re going out and getting an energy
audit, join the auditor. Go with them. Walk through and bring any operators and maintenance
staff with you. Get some anecdotal information that can tell the auditor what are the biggest
drains and what are the weaknesses of the system. Are there any – do you have a drafty
window? I have an example of a weakness on the next slide. One
last thing I want to touch on is this last slide here, this is the aggregate findings
for each of those three communities; Noorvik, Kotlik, and Alakanuk. The overall findings
found that we were able to save about a 24 percent variance in what the systems would
have cost to operate without energy efficiency measures. They did experience a four percent
increase, yes, but that was tied more to the increased electrical rate. Also, keep in mind
these are sewage systems and they serve a population. In these cases, the population
has been growing over those five years. So, there is going to be some expected demand
change in that system. Next slide, please. So, these are some of the main weaknesses that
are unique to the Alaska situation. A lot of times, we’re unable to bury our sewer lines
due to permafrost considerations. So, on the left picture we have, that is a sewer line
mounted in a utilidor running through the backyards of some of the houses. That first
house on the left, you can see there is a pipe going up to it and a protruding structure.
That protruding structure on that house is the arctic box. It’s where the sewer and water
connections both come into the house. The picture in the bottom right is a – it’s
a completely different house, but it illustrates. There’s snow on the ground, so you can assume
it’s probably very cold, definitely below freezing. That is an exposed sewer line that
is exposed to below-freezing conditions. So, if you don’t have sewage flowing through there
keeping it liquid, that will freeze and it could endanger the entire system, the entire
vacuum system. So, again, just walking through your entire system, walking through whatever
process you have set up that is using energy, and finding any weak points you can identify.
Next slide. Yeah. Anyway, thank you. If you have any questions,
feel free to reach out to the folks at Department of Energy, or if you’re in Alaska or just
want to know more about the Alaskan energy situation, feel free to contact me and I’ll
be happy to chat with you. Thank you. James Jensen:             Thanks so much, Dan. We appreciate everybody’s participation
today, all the presenters. We do have a very limited number of questions that I’d like
to try to tackle in the next two minutes. Dan, what about flush or composting toilets? Dan Smith:                 
So, Alaskan Native Tribal Health Consortium is actually experimenting with – we call
it the PASS system, Portable Alternative Sanitation System. It’s a waste-separating toilet that
is completely self-contained. So, it requires minimal outside connection. What it does is
it separates the liquid waste from the solids and dries it in an onsite catchment system.
When that gets full, it requires being manually emptied and taken to the local landfill or
potentially compost pile. That is – it may sound fairly rustic, however in many villages
throughout Alaska, that is an enormous upgrade over – we have something that we call Honey
Buckets up here, which are definitely not as sweet as they sound. In many cases, they
are essentially a five-gallon bucket with a toilet seat on it that needs to be emptied
every so often. So, having a controlled toilet that is separating, drying the waste, it makes
for much more sanitary waste-water disposal. James Jensen:             Great. Thanks, Dan. That was the last question for
you. A couple questions for Bryan, if Bryan’s still on. Dan Smith:                 
Thanks, everyone. James Jensen:             On the CHP plant, what was the total cost? There
was a $1 million grant, but how much money did the tribe provide for that project? Bryan Mignone:         Yeah, I think
it was – we had to – we spent about $2 million of our own money. James Jensen:             Okay.
What was the ROI on that? Do you have those numbers? Kind of were the expected payback
period for that CHP project? Bryan Mignone:         I think it was – if I think it was based on what – I’m
trying to think about it based on the data that’s coming in now from the operation. But
I think it’s between six and seven years, I think. It may be a little bit less. James Jensen:             Excellent.
Excellent. All right. Well those are all the questions we have. There are a few more questions
that came in from people that have left the audience. So, we’ll try to address those over
email. Thanks to all of our presenters. Oh, there is one more, and this is just a general
one. Is there a recording? The answer to that is, yes, there is. The recording will be posted
to our website in about a week or so. So, you can check back to find that recording
when it is posted. Getting back to our script. So, that wraps up our
questions. But we are, in general, interested in your suggestions on how to strengthen the
value of this and our webinar series in general. So, please, do send us feedback. Then our
final slide here is the remaining schedule for the 2020 series. The next webinar, titled
“Energy Efficiency Projects from Concept to Completion,” will be held on March 25th of
2020 at 11:00 AM Mountain Standard Time. This webinar will build on today’s webinar and
focus more on how to actually execute energy efficiency projects. Thank
you again to our audience and our presenters. We look forward to you joining us on future
webinars. This concludes the webinar for today. Good day. Thanks. [End of Audio]

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