- State of consciousness?
- Call for help If the person does not respond when you speak to them whilst holding their hand and gently shaking their shoulders: Call for help if you are alone. Lay them on their back.
- Breathing normally? Check their breathing by placing one hand on their forehead and the fingers of the other hand under the tip of their chin Carefully tilt their head backwards and lift their chin so as to fully open their airways If you see or hear no respiratory movement, nor feel any breath on your cheek, then the casualty is not breathing.
- Call the emergency services Call the emergency services.
- Defibrillator Ask somebody else present at the scene to bring a defibrillator.
- Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. While awaiting the emergency services, expose the casualty’s chest and begin chest compressions by pressing down on the centre of their chest at a rate of 2 per second If you are alone, do not perform any chest compressions but go and find a defibrillator if there is one nearby.
- Follow the instructions. Once the defibrillator has been brought to the casualty, turn it on and follow the instructions that it gives, or that come with it.
Take out the electrode paddles from their packaging, remove the protective film and place each electrode as illustrated in the diagram included on the packaging or on the electrode itself. Make sure that nobody is in contact with the casualty while the defibrillator is analyzing the casualty’s heart rhythm Follow the instructions of the device which will indicate whether you should administer a shock or continue with chest compressions. Continue in this way until the emergency services can take over or until the casualty begins breathing normally again. This device can even be used on children and infants – normally with a special adapter or using pediatric electrodes In the absence of these adapters or special electrodes, an adult defibrillator can be used, place one electrode on the chest and the other on the back, at the level of the echesthest.
First Aid: Jellyfish Sting
Help the victim out of the water taking care that you are not stung yourself In areas where highly venomous jellyfish are common, call the emergency services immediately First aid techniques
- Do not scratch Discourage the victim from scratching to avoid worsening the itching sensation.
- Remove stinging cells Rinse the wound with vinegar to reduce venom poisoning If you do not have any vinegar available, cover the sting wound with wet sand, leave it to dry then gently scratch the stinging cells or tentacles away with the aid of a card or magazine.
- Relieve pain Once the stinging cells have been scraped away, immerse the affected area in hot water until the pain subsides If you do not have any hot water available use a dry heat or, failing that, a cold compress Pressure bandages are not recommended as they could cause further venom to be released.