- State of consciousness? If the child loses consciousness, call for help if you are alone Lay them on their back.
- Normal breathing? Check that the casualty is still breathing by placing one hand on their forehead, and the fingers of your other hand beneath the tip of their chin Gently tilt their head back and lift their chin to open their airways If you see no breathing movement, hear nothing, nor feel their breath on your cheek, the casualty is not breathing.
- Alert the emergency services Call the emergency services and, only if there is one nearby, go and fetch a defibrillator.
- Defibrillator? If there are other people around you, ask someone else to fetch a defibrillator.
- Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation In the absence of a defibrillator, or whilst waiting for someone to arrive with one, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
To do this, place the heel of one hand in the centre of the child’s bare chest Position yourself directly above their chest with your arm straight Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 30 Chest Compressions Perform 30 chest compressions, pressing down to around one third of the depth of the chest. Maintain a rhythm of 2 chest compressions per second 2 Rescue breaths Alternate 30 chest compressions with 2 rescue breaths, but only if you know how to do them Or Chest compressions Otherwise perform chest compressions only If you perform mouth-to-mouth breathing, do not forget to tilt the child’s head back before each rescue breath and be sure to check that their chest inflates Continue cardiopulmonary resuscitation without stopping until: the casualty begins to breathe normally, the emergency services arrive, or a defibrillator is brought to the scene. Child Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation In the first minutes immediately after cardiac arrest, the victim may breathe weakly or take irregular, noisy gasps These are known as gasps and should not be confused with normal breathing.
First Aid: Serious Burn
- Remove the heat source – If possible, remove the heat source. – Stop the casualty from running or flailing! Tell them to roll on the ground and smother the flames with a garment or blanket.
- Alert the emergency services – Alert the emergency services and follow their instructions about applying water to the burned area
- Pour water on the burn -Hold the burned area under cool (not cold) running water. Try to remove clothing in contact with the burn, but do not persist or pull too hard if the fabric is stuck to the skin.
- Have the casualty lie down – Have the casualty lie down unless the burned area is on their back. Never burst a blister; as once the skin is broken, microbes can get in and cause an infection.
- Tetanus Vaccine? – Make sure that the victim’s tetanus shots are up to date. If in any doubt, seek advice from their doctor. A burn is considered “serious” when: it covers an area larger than half the palm of the person’s hand; it is deep; when it is located in a critical area such as: the face, the hands, around any of the body’s orifices, or the joints; or when it has been caused by chemicals or electricity.